Analisis faktor ibu terhadap kejadian stunting pada balita usia 24-59 bulan di perkotaan

Elya Sugianti* -  Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Provinsi Jawa Timur. Jln. Gayung Kebonsari, No. 56, Kota Surabaya, Jawa Timur 60235, Indonesia
Annas Buanasita -  Jurusan Gizi, Politeknik Kesehatan Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia
Henny Hidayanti -  Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Provinsi Jawa Timur, Surabaya, Indonesia
Berliana Devianti Putri -  Fakultas Vokasi, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia

Supp. File(s): Research Instrument Pernyataan etik penelitian & hak cipta Ethical Approval

The prevalence of stunting is still high in urban areas. Maternal factors such as height, education, occupation, antenatal visits, and nutritional status have increased stunting in urban areas. The study aims to analyze the maternal factors that influence the incidence of stunting among children aged 24-59 months in urban areas. The case-control design study was conducted in May-July 2019 in Pasuruan City. Samples of 67 cases (HAZ < -2SD) and 67 controls (HAZ > -2SD) were selected by simple random sampling. Data on children's age, gender, birth order, education, occupation, pregnancy classes, and antenatal visits were collected by interviewing respondents using a questionnaire. Data on birth weight, maternal age during pregnancy, maternal upper arm circumference during pregnancy, and maternal height were obtained from the MCH Handbook. The chi-square test and Logistic Regression were used for data analysis. The results showed that the maternal nutritional status during pregnancy was associated with the incidence of stunting in urban areas (p= 0,010). In contrast, children's age, gender, birth order, birth weight, maternal age during pregnancy, maternal height, education, occupation, pregnancy classes, and antenatal visits were not associated (p> 0,05). The incidence of stunting was 3,37 times higher in mothers with MUAC < 23,5 cm during pregnancy (OR= 3,37). In conclusion, maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is the main predictor of stunting among children aged 24-59 months in urban areas.

Supplement Files

Keywords : MUAC, Nutritional status, Pregnant women, Stunting

  1. Ahmed, S., Hassen, K., & Wakayo, T. (2018). A health facility based case-control study on determinants of low birth weight in Dassie town, Northeast Ethiopia: the role of nutritional factors. Nutrition Journal, 17. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0409-z
  2. Al Rahmad, A. H., Miko, A., Labatjo, R., Fajriansyah, F., Fitri, Y., & Suryana, S. (2020). Malnutrition prevalence among toddlers based on family characteristics: A cross-sectional study in the rural and urban areas of Aceh, Indonesia. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 49(3), 263. https://doi.org/10.4038/sljch.v49i3.9145
  3. Alam, M. A., Mahfuz, M., Islam, M. M., Mondal, D., Ahmed, A., Haque, R., Ahmed, T., & Hossain, M. iqbal. (2017). Contextual Factors for Stunting Among Children of Age 6 to 24 Months in an Under-Privileged Community of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Indian Pediatrics, 54, 373–376. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13312-017-1109-z
  4. Alim, K. Y., Rosidi, A., & Suhartono, S. (2018). Birth length, maternal height and pesticide exposure were predictors of child stunting in agricultural area. Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 6(3), 89–98. https://doi.org/10.21927/ijnd.2018.6(3).89-98
  5. Amaha, N. D., & Woldeamanuel, B. T. (2021). Maternal factors associated with moderate and severe stunting in Ethiopian children: analysis of some environmental factors based on 2016 demographic health survey. Nutrition Journal, 20(18). https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00677-6
  6. Asmare, G., Berhan, N., Berhanu, M., & Alebel, A. (2018). Determinants of low birth weight among neonates born in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals of Ethiopia: unmatched case control study. BMC Research Notes, 11(447). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-018-3568-2
  7. Berhe, K., Seid, O., Gebremariam, Y., Berhe, A., & Etsay, N. (2019). Risk factors of stunting ( chronic undernutrition ) of children aged 6 to 24 months in Mekelle City , Tigray Region , North Ethiopia : An unmatched case-control study. PLoS ONE, 14(6)(e0217736).
  8. Bukusuba, J., Kaaya, A. N., & Atukwase, A. (2017). Predictors of Stunting in Children Aged 6 to 59 Months : A Case – Control Study in Southwest Uganda. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 38(4), 542–553. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572117731666
  9. Chirande, L., Charwe, D., Mbwana, H., Victor, R., Kimboka, S., Issaka, A. I., Baines, S. K., Dibley, M. J., & Agho, K. E. (2015). Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in Tanzania : evidence from the 2010 cross-sectional household survey. BMC Pediatrics, 15(165). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-015-0482-9
  10. Chowdhury, M. R. K., Khan, H. T. A., Rashid, M., Kabir, R., Islam, S., Islam, M. S., & Kader, M. (2021). Differences in risk factors associated with single and multiple concurrent forms of undernutrition (stunting, wasting or underweight) among children under 5 in Bangladesh: a nationally representative cross- sectional study. BMJ Open, 11(e052814). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052814
  11. Cruz, L. M. G., Azpeitia, C. G., Suarez, D. R., Rodriguez, Alfredo SantanaFerrer, J. F., & Serra-Majem, L. (2017). Factors Associated with Stunting among Children Aged 0 to 59 Months from the Central Region of Mozambique. Nutrients, 9(491). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050491
  12. Das, S., Chanani, S., Shah More, N., Osrin, D., Pantvaidya, S., & Jayaraman, A. (2020). Determinants of stunting among children under 2 years in urban informal settlements in Mumbai, India: evidence from a household census. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 39(10), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41043-020-00222-x
  13. De Onis, M., & Branca, F. (2016). Childhood stunting: a global perspective. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 12(S1), 12–26. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12231
  14. Dhami, M. V., Ogbo, F. A., Osuagwu, U. L., Ugboma, Z., & Agho, K. E. (2019). Stunting and severe stunting among infants in India: the role of delayed introduction of complementary foods and community and household factors. Global Health Action, 12(1). https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2019.1638020
  15. Ezeh, O. K., Abir, T., Zainol, N. R., Mamun, A. Al, Milton, A. H., Haque, M. R., & Agho, K. E. (2021). Trends of stunting prevalence and its associated factors among nigerian children aged 0–59 months residing in the northern nigeria, 2008–2018. Nutrients, 13(12), 2–19. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124312
  16. Fatemi, M. J., Fararouei, M., & Moravej, H. (2018). Stunting and its associated factors among 6 – 7-year-old children in southern Iran : a nested case – control study. Public Health Nutrition, 22(1), 55–62. https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898001800263X
  17. Fikadu, T., Assegid, S., & Dube, L. (2014). Factors associated with stunting among children of age 24 to 59 months in Meskan district, Gurage Zone, South Ethiopia: a case-control study. Bmc Public Health, 14(1), 1–7.
  18. Fitriani, H., Setya R, A., & Nurdiana, P. (2020). Risk Factors of Maternal Nutrition Status During Pregnancy to Stunting in Toddlers Aged 12 – 59 Months. Jurnal Keperawatan Padjadjaran, 8(2), 183–191. https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp
  19. Geberselassie, S. B., Abebe, S. M., Melsew, A., Mutuku, S. M., & Wassie, M. M. (2018). Prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-Kemekem district , Northwest Ethiopia ; A community based cross sectional study. PLoS ONE, 13(5), 1–11.
  20. Habimana, S., & Biracyaza, E. (2019). Risk Factors Of Stunting Among Children Under 5 Years Of Age In The Eastern And Western Provinces Of Rwanda: Analysis Of Rwanda Demographic And Health Survey 2014/2015. Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 10, 115–130. https://doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S222198
  21. Kahssay, M., Woldu, E., Gebre, A., & Reddy, S. (2020). Determinants of stunting among children aged 6 to 59 months in pastoral community, Afar region, North East Ethiopia: unmatched case control study. BMC Nutrition, 6(9). https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-020-00332-z
  22. Kavosi, E., Rostami, Z. H., Kavosi, Z., Nasihatkon, A., & Moghadami, M. (2014). Prevalence and determinants of under-nutrition among children under six : a cross-sectional survey in Fars province , Iran. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 3(2), 71–76. https://doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2014.63
  23. Kemenkes. (2019a). Laporan Nasional Riskesdas 2018. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.
  24. Kemenkes. (2019b). Laporan Provinsi Jawa Timur Riskesdas 2018. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.
  25. Khan, S., Zaheer, S., & Safdar, N. F. (2019). Determinants of stunting, underweight and wasting among children < 5 years of age: Evidence from 2012-2013 Pakistan demographic and health survey. In BMC Public Health (Vol. 19, Issue 1, p. 358). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6688-2
  26. Lewa, A. F., Kusika, S. Y., Muliani, Rahmawati, & Jannah, I. (2020). Risk factors of stunting events in child 6–23 months old in Biromaru Public Health Center Sigi. Enfermería Clínica, 30, 131–135. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.10.056
  27. Liu, J., Sun, J., Huang, J., & Huo, J. (2021). Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors of Stunting among 6 – 23-Month-Old Infants in Central Rural China in 2019. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(8165). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158165
  28. Mahmood, T., Abbas, F., Kumar, R., & Somrongthong, R. (2020). Why under five children are stunted in Pakistan? A multilevel analysis of Punjab Multiple indicator Cluster Survey (MICS-2014). BMC Public Health, 20(952), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09110-9
  29. Mansur, M., Afiaz, A., & Hossain, M. S. (2021). Sociodemographic risk factors of under-five stunting in Bangladesh : Assessing the role of interactions using a machine learning method. PLoS One, 16 (8)(e0256729). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256729
  30. Masrin, Paratmanitya, Y., & Aprilia, V. (2014). Ketahanan pangan rumah tangga berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan. Jurnal Gizi Dan Dietetik Indonesia, 2(3), 103–115.
  31. Melaku, Y. A., Zello, G. A., Gill, T. K., Adams, R. J., & Shi, Z. (2015). Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and thinness among adolescent students in Northern Ethiopia : a comparison to World Health Organization standards. Archives of Public Health, 73(44). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13690-015-0093-9
  32. Miko, A., & Al-Rahmad, A. H. (2017). Hubungan berat dan tinggi badan orang tua dengan status gizi balita di Kabupaten Aceh Besar. Gizi Indonesia, 40(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.36457/gizindo.v40i1.222
  33. Muche, A., & Dewau, R. (2021). Severe stunting and its associated factors among children aged 6 – 59 months in Ethiopia ; multilevel ordinal logistic regression model. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 47(161). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-021-01110-8
  34. Mustikaningrum, A. C., Subagio, H. W., & Margawati, A. (2016). Determinan kejadian stunting pada bayi usia 6 bulan di Kota Semarang. Jurnal Gizi Indonesia, 4(2), 82–88. https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.4.2.82-88
  35. Mzumara, B., Bwembya, P., Halwiindi, H., Mugode, R., & Banda, J. (2018). Factors associated with stunting among children below five years of age in Zambia: evidence from the 2014 Zambia demographic and health survey. BMC Nutrition, 4(51). https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-018-0260-9
  36. Nai, H. M., Gunawan, I. M. A., & Nurwanti, E. (2014). Praktik Pemberian Makanan Pendamping ASI ( MP-ASI ) bukan Faktor Risiko Kejadian Stunting pada Anak Usia 6-23 bulan. Jurnal Gizi Dan Dietetik Indonesia, 2(3), 126–139. https://doi.org/10.21927/ijnd.2014.2(3).126-139.
  37. Nkurunziza, S., Meessen, B., Van, J., & Korachais, C. (2017). Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months : evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey , 2014. Jornal of BioMed Central, 17(176), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-017-0929-2
  38. Ntenda, P., & Chuang, Y.-C. (2018). Analysis of individual-level and community- level effects on childhood undernutrition in Malawi. Pediatrics and Neonatology, 59(4), 380–389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedneo.2017.11.019
  39. Nuraisya, W., & Erdi, W. (2021). The Correlation of Parents Height Characteristics and Maternal Nutritional Status During Pregnancy Based on Upper Arm Circumference (UAC) and Stunting Incidence of Toddlers Aged 24-59 Months in the Working Area of Berbek Community Health Center Nganjuk Re. Jurnal Ners Dan Kebidanan, 8(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.26699/jnk.v8i1.ART.p
  40. Obeng-amoako, G. A. O., Karamagi, C. A. S., Nangendo, J., Okiring, J., Kiirya, Y., Aryeetey, R., Mupere, E., Myatt, M., Briend, A., Kalyango, J. N., & Wamani, H. (2021). Factors associated with concurrent wasting and stunting among children 6 – 59 months in Karamoja , Uganda. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 17(e13074). https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13074
  41. Paciorek, C. J., Stevens, Dsc, G. A., Finucane, M. M., Ezzati, P. M., Impact, N., Study, M., & Child, G. (2013). Children ’ s height and weight in rural and urban populations in low-income and middle-income countries : a systematic analysis of population-representative data. The Lancet Global Health, 1(5), e300–e309. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70109-8
  42. Pandey, P., Bajpai, P., Jain, S., & Sharma, A. (2017). Maternal empowerment holds the key to reducing stunting during first 1000 days of life: Evidence from a case-controlled study. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 10(3), 667–677. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_228_17
  43. Pham, B. N., Silas, V. D., Okely, A. D., & Pomat, W. (2021). Measuring Wasting and Stunting Prevalence Among Children Under 5 Years of Age and Associated Risk Factors in Papua New Guinea: New Evidence From the Comprehensive Health and Epidemiological Surveillance System. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8(56). https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.622660
  44. Piniliw, M. B., Africa, L. S., & Agne, J. P. (2021). Factors Associated with Stunting among 24‒35-Month-Old Kalinga Indigenous Children in Pinukpuk, Kalinga, Philippines: A Case-Control Study. Jurnal Gizi Pangan, 16(2), 81–90. https://doi.org/10.25182/jgp.2021.16.2.81-90
  45. Pratiwi, R., Pramono, A., & Hardaningsih, G. (2021). Risk factor of growth faltering in infants aged 2-12 months. Jurnal Gizi Indonesia, 10(1), 72–79. https://doi.org/10.14710/jgi.10.1.72-79
  46. Rabaoarisoa, C. R., Rakotoarison, R., Rakotonirainy, N. H., Mangahasimbola, R. T., Randrianarisoa, A. B., Jambou, R., Vigan-Womas, I., Piola, P., & Randremanana, R. V. (2017). The importance of public health, poverty reduction programs and women’s empowerment in the reduction of child stunting in rural areas of Moramanga and Morondava, Madagascar. PLoS One, 12(10). https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186493
  47. Rahman, N., Napirah, M. R., Nadila, D., & Bohari. (2017). Determinants of Stunting among Children in Urban Families in Palu, Indonesia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 16(10), 750–756. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2017.750.756
  48. Rakhmahayu, A., Lanti, Y., Dewi, R., & Murti, B. (2019). Logistic Regression Analysis on the Determinants of Stunting among Children Aged 6-24 Months in Purworejo Regency , Central Java. Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 4(3), 158–169. https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2019.04.03.03
  49. Ruaida, N., & Soumokil, O. (2018). Hubungan Status Kek Ibu Hamil Dan Bblr Dengan Kejadian Stunting Pada Balita Di Puskesmas Tawiri Kota Ambon. Jurnal Kesehatan Terpadu (Integrated Health Journal), 9(2), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.32695/jkt.v2i9.12
  50. Santosa, A., Arif, E. N., & Ghoni, D. A. (2022). Effect of maternal and child factors on stunting: partial least squares structural equation modeling. Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics, 65(2), 90–97. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00094
  51. Santosa, A., S.Kep., Ns., M.Kep, Arif, E. N., S.Kep, & Ghoni, D. A. (2022). Effect of maternal and child factors on stunting: partial least squares structural equation modeling. Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics, 65(2), 90–97. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00094
  52. Shaka, M. F., Woldie, Y. B., Lola, H. M., Olkamo, K. Y., & Anbasse, A. T. (2020). Determinants of undernutrition among children under-five years old in southern Ethiopia: does pregnancy intention matter? A community-based unmatched case-control study. BMC Pediatrics, 20, 1–10. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-2004-7
  53. Sharma, S. K., Mudgal, S. K., Thakur, K., & Gaur, R. (2020). How to calculate sample size for observational and experimental nursing research studies? National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 10(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.5455/njppp2020.10.0930717102019
  54. Sunguya, B. F., Zhu, S., Mpembeni, R., & Huang, J. (2019). Trends in prevalence and determinants of stunting in Tanzania: An analysis of Tanzania demographic health surveys (1991-2016). Nutrition Journal, 18(85). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-019-0505-8
  55. Tafesse, T., Yoseph, A., Mayiso, K., & Gari, T. (2021). Factors associated with stunting among children aged 6–59 months in Bensa District, Sidama Region, South Ethiopia: unmatched case-control study. BMC Pediatrics, 21, 1–11. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-03029-9
  56. Toru, T., & Anmut, W. (2020). Assessment of Low Birth Weight and Associated Factors Among Neonates in Butajira General Hospital, South Ethiopia, Cross Sectional Study, 2019. International Journal of Pediatrics, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5841963
  57. Uwiringiyimana, V., Ocke, M., Amer, S., & Veldkamp, A. (2019). Predictors of stunting with particular focus on complementary feeding practices : A cross-sectional study in the northern province of Rwanda. Nutrition, 60, 11–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.07.016
  58. Vasundhara, D., Rajkumar, H., Sharma, S., Ramalaxmi, B. A., Bhaskar, V., Babu, J., Vijaya, R. K. K., & Mamidi, R. (2020). Maternal MUAC and fetal outcome in an Indian tertiary care hospital : A prospective observational study. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 16(2)(e12902). https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12902
  59. Victora, C. G., Christian, P., Vidaletti, L. P., Gatica-Domínguez, G., Menon, P., & Black, R. E. (2021). Revisiting maternal and child undernutrition in low-income and middle-income countries: variable progress towards an unfinished agenda. The Lancet, 397(10282), 1388–1399. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00394-9
  60. Vonaesch, P., Djorie, G. S., Kandou, J. E., Rakotondrainipiana, M., Schaeffer, L., & Andriatsalama, P. V. (2021). Factors Associated with Stunted Growth in Children Under Five Years in Antananarivo , Madagascar and Bangui , Central African Republic. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 25, 1626–1637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-021-03201-8
  61. Wali, N., Agho, K. E., & Renzaho, A. M. N. (2018). Factors Associated with Stunting among Children under 5 Years in Five South Asian Countries ( 2014 – 2018 ): Analysis of Demographic Health Surveys. Nutrients, 12(3875). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123875
  62. Wani, Y. A., & Hadi, H. (2018). Perbandingan perkembangan motorik anak usia 1-3 tahun dengan berat badan kurang pendek dan tidak pendek. Indonesian Journal of Human Nutrition, 5(1), 33–40. https://doi.org/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.ijhn.2018.005.01.4
  63. WHO. (2021). Levels and trends in child malnutrition: Key findings of the 2021 edition of the joint child malnutrition estimates. https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/joint-child-malnutrition-estimates-unicef-who-wb.
  64. Wondemagegn, A. T., Cheme, M., & Gerbi, E. (2017). Predictors of Chronic Undernutrition ( Stunting ) among Under Five Children in Rural East Wollega , Oromiya Region , West Ethiopia : A Community Based Unmatched Case - Control Study. Journal of Nutritional Health and Food Engineering, 7(2)(00233). https://doi.org/10.15406/jnhfe.2017.07.00233
  65. Yazew, T. (2022). Risk Factors of Stunting and Wasting among Children Aged 6 – 59 Months in Household Food Insecurity of Jima Geneti District , Western Oromia , Ethiopia : An Observational Study. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/3981417
  66. Yulianti, S., & Tepi, D. (2020). Stunting Dan Perkembangan Motorik Balita Di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kemumu Kabupaten Bengkulu Utara. Journal of Nutrition College, 9(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.14710/jnc.v9i1.24530

Open Access Copyright (c) 2023 Elya Sugianti, Annas Buanasita, Henny Hidayanti, Berliana Devianti Putri
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

AcTion: Aceh Nutrition Journal
Published by: Department of Nutrition at the Health Polytechnic of Aceh, Ministry of Health.
Soekarno-Hatta Street, No. 168. Health Polytechnic of Aceh, Aceh Besar, 23352. Telp/Fax: 0651 46126 / 0651 46121.
Website: https://gizipoltekkesaceh.ac.id/
E-mail: [email protected]

e-issn: 2548-5741, p-issn: 2527-3310

All content is licensed under a: Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International License

View My Stats

Get a feed by atom here, RRS2 here and OAI Links here